CBC DIFF-PLT W-PATH
Also known as
CBC, Hemogram, CBC with Differential
This test is used to get a general idea of your health status. It is also used to screen, diagnose or monitor a variety of diseases that afflict the blood cells like anemia, infection, bleeding disorders, inflammation, or cancer. This is also a blood smear test that evaluates the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It helps in detecting and diagnosing any range of deficiencies, diseases, and disorders related to blood cell production.
The test may be ordered for a variety of reasons. This test is sometimes ordered as part of a routine medical exam. It is also ordered when you have symptoms related to diseases and disorders of blood cell production. It is also ordered in monitoring treatment, response to treatment, and gauging disease status when you are under treatment for diseases related to blood cell production.
A blood sample is drawn from your arm using a syringe.
There is no special preparation needed for the test.
Complete blood count refers to a panel of tests that analyses the cells which are present in the blood. This includes three main components, namely red blood cells, also known as RBCs, white blood cells, also known as WBCs, and platelets, also known as PLTs. A complete blood count gives the doctor an idea of your overall health and helps in detecting a number of conditions and diseases, ranging from leukemia to infections and anemia. Blood cells are produced by and reach maturity in the bone marrow. They are released by the bone marrow into the bloodstream as needed after they mature. Red blood cells are also known as erythrocytes. Made in the bone marrow, they are released in the blood cell when they mature. The primary function of red blood cells is to carry oxygen around the body. They contain a protein called hemoglobin which enables them to do so. A red blood cell lasts up to 120 days. The bone marrow must consistently produce red blood cells in order to replace those that have aged or have been degraded or lost through injury and bleeding. There are a variety of disorders that can cause a decline in the production of red blood cells and shorten their lifespan. In some cases, heavy bleeding may occur. Red blood cells have a uniform size and shape, but their appearance can be deformed by factors like deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, and folate. White blood cells, on the other hand, are also known as leukocytes. These cells are present in the bloodstream, the tissues, and the lymphatic system. White blood cells constitute an essential part of the body’s immune system, which fights against foreign invaders. White blood cells play a pivotal role in protection against infections, inflammations, and allergic reactions. There are five categories of white blood cells, each of which performs a different function. These include monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and basophils. White blood cells are present in the blood at a continuum in stable numbers. However, this number may change in response to what is going on in the internal environment of the body. When there is an infection in the body, the bone marrow may produce a more significant number of neutrophils to attack the bacterial infection. In the case of allergens, there may be a greater number of eosinophils present in the body. Diseases also alter the number of white blood cells present in the body; in leukemia, the uniformity of cells also changes, as white blood cells, which are abnormal, multiply rapidly. Platelets are also called thrombocytes. These are small cell fragments that circulate in the blood and are crucial for normal blood clotting. In the case of injury, platelets clump together at the site of the wound to form a temporary plug. They also release signals which prompt the clumping of additional cells at the site until the injury heals. Low platelets in the blood can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising.
The CBC is carried out using an automated instrument that measures various parameters, ranging from blood cell counts to the physical composition and features of some cells. The red blood cell test typically includes:
- A red blood cell count
- The total amount of hemoglobin present in the blood
- Hematocrit, which is the percentage of the blood which consists of red blood cells
- The shape and features of red blood cells, including their mean corpuscular volume, which is their size; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, which is the amount of hemoglobin present; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, the average concentration of hemoglobin in the blood; and the red cell distribution, which is the variation in their size.
- It may also include a reticulocyte count, which is the count of newly released RBCs in the blood.
- The white blood cell count
- The white blood cell differential, which identifies and counts the number of the five categories of white blood cells present in the blood. The figure is reported as an absolute count or a percentage of the total
- The number of platelets in the blood
- A mean platelet volume which reports their zie
- Platelet distribution reflects how uniform they are in size
It may be ordered as part of a routine examination or if you are showing signs of blood-related disorders and conditions. It can be ordered when you have fatigue, weakness, easy bruising, bleeding, or if you have inflammation or an infection.
The test is interpreted with all of its components. Follow-up tests are usually ordered in light of the purpose of the test in the first place. The blood smear evaluation does not always identify a disease. In general, it points towards the presence of an underlying condition, its severity, and the need for further diagnostic testing.