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Comprehensive Metabolic Panel CMP

Also known as

CMP, Chemistry 14, Chem 14, Chemistry Panel, Chemistry Screen

This test is ordered by the doctor when he or she wants to assess the overall health status of the patient. The test is used to screen for, diagnose, or evaluate varying diseases and conditions like liver disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. Also, it is used to evaluate specific conditions which may impact liver function or kidney health.
The test isThe test is ordered by the doctor as part of a routine health exam. It may also be ordered when the patient is ill, being monitored for specific conditions, or perceived as having side effects from specific medicines. ordered by the doctor when he or she feels that the patient has muscle weakness and muscle aches. It is also ordered when urine is dark in colour, and the doctor suspects that it is linked to muscle damage. Sometimes, the test is ordered to monitor for muscle injury persistence or resolution.
This is a blood test. The test requires a blood sample to be drawn from a vein in the arm using a syringe.
Whether or not you need to prepare for the test is dependent on why the test is being carried out. In some cases, you need to fast before the blood draw for at least 8 to 10 hours. Fasting means that you cannot eat anything and drink only water. You must follow all the instructions laid out by your doctor. Also, you need to inform your doctor about all prescriptions, over-the-counter medication, herbal treatment, vitamins and supplements you are on.
The Comprehensive Metabolic Panel consists of 14 tests that measure different substances in your body. The test is commonly ordered by the doctor and provides crucial information about the body’s metabolism, blood sugar levels, the balance of electrolytes, fluids, and the health of the liver and kidneys. Tests that are abnormal as a standalone or in conjunction with one another indicate problems that need to be addressed and require follow-up testing. The CMP consists of 14 tests:
  1. Glucose: which is the primary source of energy for the body, it should be available in steady supply and present in stable amounts in the blood
  2. Calcium: this is one of the most important minerals for the body as it aids in the proper functioning of the nerves, muscles and heart. It is also essential for the formation of bones and is important for blood clotting.
The CMP lab test also screens for electrolytes which are minerals present in the blood and tissues as dissolved salts. Electrolytes move nutrients into the cells and push out waste. They also ensure that the body maintains a healthy water balance and help stabilize its pH level. The electrolyte test includes:
  1. Sodium: this is essential for the normal functioning of the body, particularly the nerves and muscles.
  2. Potassium: important for cell metabolism and muscle function. It helps in transmitting messages between muscles and nerves.
  3. Bicarbonate: this helps in maintaining the body’s pH level.
  4. Chloride: this substance helps in regulating the levels of fluid in the body and maintains the acid-base balance.
The kidney tests consist of:
  1. Blood urea nitrogen: also known as BUN. This test measures the amounts of blood urea nitrogen. When the waste product is filtered out of the body by the kidneys or as kidney function decreases, blood, urea, and nitrogen levels rise.
  2. Creatinine: This test measures how much of it is produced in the kidneys. Creatinine is a waste product of the muscles and is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. Creatinine levels are a good indicator of kidney function.
The protein tests include:
  1. Albumin: this is a small protein made by the liver, making up nearly 60% of the protein in the blood.
  2. Total protein: This test measures other proteins in addition to albumin. Proteins are the building blocks of tissues and cells in the body. They are also responsible for growth, health, and development.
The following liver tests are also part of the panel:
  1. Alkaline phosphatase: also known as ALP. It tests for the enzyme found in the bone, liver, and other issues.
  2. Alanine aminotransferase: also known as ALP, SGPT. This enzyme is found in the cells of the liver and kidney. It aids in detecting liver damage.
  3. Aspartate Aminotransferase: also known as AST, SGOT. This is found in the heart and liver, aids in detecting liver damage.
  4. Bilirubin: This is an orange-yellow pigment produced as a by-product after the breakdown of heme; a component of hemoglobin. Bilirubin is removed from the body by the liver.
The CMP is used to assess the overall health level of the body, acid-base balance, status of electrolytes and blood sugar levels; all components which are part of the body’s healthy metabolism. The results are used to detect diseases and keep a check on known conditions. Also, it evaluates hypertension and keeps a check on specific medications that impact kidney or liver function. The CMP, as the name implies, offers comprehensive information to the doctor in monitoring a variety of factors.
The test is ordered commonly as part of routine checkups conducted yearly or otherwise. The test is ordered if the doctor thinks you have liver disease. Symptoms of liver disease include:
  1. Swelling in the abdomen and legs
  2. Bruising easily
  3. Changes in the color of stool and urine
  4. Jaundice
  5. Yellowing of skin and eyes
It may also be ordered if the doctor feels that the patient has kidney disease, the symptoms of which include:
  1. Weight loss
  2. Poor appetite.
  3. Swollen ankles, feet or hands
  4. Shortness of breath
  5. Tiredness
  6. Blood in the urine
  7. An increased need to urinate, particularly at night
  8. Insomnia
  9. Itchy skin
If the test results are not normal, singularly or in combination, it can be because of a range of different conditions like diabetes, kidney disease or liver dysfunction. Follow-up testing is needed to confirm and center in on a specific diagnosis.