DAT, Direct Coombs Test, Direct Anti-human Globulin Test
- After a blood transfusion: when someone receives blood that does not match their type, the body's immune response is to identify the blood as foreign and launch an attack against the red blood cells and destroy them. People that have had multiple blood transfusions make more red blood cells because of their exposure to foreign red blood cells. If someone shows symptoms of a reaction to a blood transfusion, the test helps determine if there are antibodies attached to the surface of the red blood cells.
- Mother’s or baby’s blood types are incompatible: the baby might have a blood type different from that of the mother if he or she inherits it from the father. Sometimes in labor, a mother may get exposed to a baby's red blood cells, which may be recognized by the immune system as a foreign, and immune response may be triggered. In other cases, a baby's red blood cells can be covered with antibodies that cross into the placenta from the mother's blood into his/her blood circulation. This leads to the antibodies attacking the baby's red blood cells, causing hemolytic disease of the newborn. The test helps determine if there are antibodies from the mother attached to the baby's red blood cells.
- Autoimmune disease and other conditions: in some cases, people may make antibodies that attack their red blood cells. The production of these antibodies occurs because the immune system mistakenly identifies the body's own red blood cells as foreign invaders. This occurs in various conditions like autoimmune disorders such as lupus Anticoagulant , malignant disease like lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and infections like mononucleosis.
- Drug-induced anemia: in some cases, drugs can cause the production of antibodies against red blood cells leading to their destruction. This occurs with antibiotics like penicillin, piperacillin, and cephalosporins. Therefore, it is important to notify your doctor about any drugs you have been on.
- Pale appearance
- Jaundice, including elevated bilirubin
- Enlarged liver or spleen
- Swelling of the entire body
- Difficulty breathing
- Fever, chills
- Back pain
- Bloody urine
- Transfusion reaction
- An autoimmune disorder, such as lupus
- Lymphoma or another malignant disease
- Infection, such as mycoplasma pneumonia and mononucleosis
- Medication, such as penicillin
- Baby-mother blood group incompatibility