Thyroglobulin is a protein that is made only in the thyroid gland. This test is used to measure the amount of thyroglobulin present in the blood. The thyroid gland makes the hormones thyroxine, also known as T4, and triiodothyronine, also known as T3. These hormones are crucial in regulating the rate at which the body uses energy. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped organ that is located at the base of the throat. It lies flat against the windpipe. The main body is made up of very small, ball-shaped structures called follicles. The follicles are responsible for producing and storing thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin is the main source of the hormones T4
The pituitary hormone TSH
, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone, is responsible for stimulating the production of T3 and T4, as well as their release in the bloodstream. Thyroglobulin is present in all healthy individuals, and generally, the level of thyroglobulin is low in the blood. Its levels increase in both benign (Graves’ disease, subacute thyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis) and thyroid cancer. Thereby, thyroglobulin operates as a non-specific indicator of thyroid dysfunction in addition to being a tumor marker that can be used to assess patients who have thyroid papillary and follicular cancer after they have been diagnosed.