Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure (CRF), is a condition of decline in renal function over a long period, which could be mild, moderate, or severe. According to the guidelines, the glomerular filtration rate is used to define chronic kidney disease. It is defined as renal damage or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for at least 3 months.
Chronic kidney disease is caused by some underlying condition that causes renal damage. In the long run, renal damage contributes to renal function decline and chronic kidney disease. The following disorders may cause renal function and structural deterioration of varying causes:
Chronic kidney disease is classified into the following stages based upon GFR:
Stage 1- the GFR is normal, but there is some degree of renal damage. The normal GFR is 90ml/min.
Stage 2- GFR is mildly reduced to 60-69 ml/min.
Stage 3a- There is a moderate reduction in the GFR of 45-60 ml/min.
Stage 3b- GFR is moderately reduced to 30-45 ml/min.
Stage 4- GFR is reduced to 15-30 ml/min.
Stage 5- Kidney failure with GFR less than 15ml/ min. This stage usually requires kidney dialysis.
Kidney disease is prevalent worldwide. In the United States, kidney disease is the ninth most leading cause of death. In people with advancing age, the disease progresses rapidly. Severe kidney disease or end-stage renal disease is usually seen in individuals of 60 years or more. It is seen in both genders with equal incidence. However, the mortality rate in men is higher than in women.
Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include:
Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease include:
Complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include:
Differential diagnoses of chronic renal disease include:
Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on treating the underlying cause to prevent secondary manifestations of the disease and complications. It aims to reduce the progression of kidney damage, so the kidney function does not decline further. In the case of end-stage renal disease, the focus is to replace the renal function effectively.
The prognosis of chronic renal disease depends upon the following factors:
Our clinical experts continually monitor the health and medical content posted on CURA4U, and we update our blogs and articles when new information becomes available. Last reviewed by Dr.Saad Zia on May 14, 2023.
Chronic Kidney Disease Basics | Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative | CDC
Chronic kidney disease - ScienceDirect