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Risk Factors And Epidemiology

The spread of trichomoniasis occurs primarily by sexual activity. Therefore unprotected sex is a significant risk factor for contracting this disease. Lack of condoms or direct touching of genitals with an infected person can spread this disease from one person to another. The presence of more than one partner during sexual activity can also increase the risk. If you have been diagnosed previously with another STD, such as a chlamydia infection, you may be at a higher risk for trichomoniasis as well. The presence or history of another sexually transmitted disease increases the tendency to be infected by this parasite due to a weak immune response. Some individuals may contract this disease by sharing needles for intravenous drug usage. Pregnant women infected with this parasite may transmit it to their babies during vaginal delivery. 

Millions of cases of trichomoniasis are reported every year, with over 3 million cases from the United States alone. Females are much more prone to develop this infection than males. It has also been noticed that older females may have a higher risk of contracting this parasite. African American females are more commonly affected by this condition than others. 

Signs And Symptoms

A certain majority of people infected by Trichomonas vaginalis may remain asymptomatic for long periods, even years. If the parasite triggers the immune system, it may lead to an itchy or burning sensation in the genital or urethral tracks. Both men and women infected with this parasite experience itching or burning sensation in their genitals, which may flare during sexual intercourse or urination. Women may also notice a white or yellowish discharge from the vagina that has a foul smell. Some infected individuals may complain of lower abdominal pain that may occur even without any sexual activity. 

Differential Diagnosis

Other diseases that may present with similar symptoms as trichomoniasis include chlamydia infection, bacterial vaginitis, cervicitis, vaginal candidiasis, atrophic vaginitis, etc.  


An antibiotic regimen is the best method of treatment for trichomoniasis. Without antibiotics, an infected person can carry the parasite for a long time despite having no symptoms. Your doctor recommends the dosage of antibiotics. It should be taken with more caution in pregnant women, especially during the first three months. Sexual intercourse or other sexual activities should be avoided during the antibiotic course and at least one week after to prevent any risk of spreading the infection. It is suggested that the partner or partners of an infected person be given an antibiotic regimen as well, even if they have not developed any signs or symptoms. 


The prognosis of trichomoniasis is exceptionally well if it is treated with the prescribed antibiotic regimen. If left untreated, it may remain asymptomatic or develop into further complications.


Methods for the prevention of trichomoniasis are similar to preventing other STDs. Safe sex should be practiced, and the use of condoms should be advised before engaging in sexual activity with a partner. It is also beneficial to regularly get screening tests for trichomoniasis and other STDs. Suppose you or your partner has been diagnosed previously with trichomoniasis or any other STD. In that case, it is better to avoid sexual activities until it is proven that both of the partners are negative. Pregnant mothers should also take precautionary measures and seek their doctor early if they experience any relative symptoms to be treated before it is spread to the baby through vaginal delivery. 

Our clinical experts continually monitor the health and medical content posted on CURA4U, and we update our blogs and articles when new information becomes available. Last reviewed by Dr.Saad Zia on May 08, 2023.




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