Distance: 25 KM
Original Price:

Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody igM

Also Known As: Anti-Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgM Test, Beta-2 Glycoprotein Test, Beta 2GP1 Ab Test

What Is A Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgM) Test?

The test helps determine and diagnose the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during conditions like unexplained blood clots, thrombotic episodes, and venous thromboembolism. In most women, the test is also performed to understand the causes behind recurrent miscarriages.

Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 is a kind of autoantibody linked with issues like inappropriate blood clotting. This is one of the preliminary autoantibodies known as antiphospholipid antibodies that may target your body's phospholipids present in the outer layer of cell membrane and platelets. The antiphospholipid antibodies can impact your blood clotting process in a non-understandable manner. If left untreated, they can increase your risk of developing thrombi, i.e., inappropriate blood clots in both veins and arteries. 

The antibodies are mostly found in people with autoimmune disorders like antiphospholipid syndrome, a condition linked with low platelet count ( thrombocytopenia), excessive blood clots ( thrombotic episodes), and pregnancy complications like recurrent miscarriages and preeclampsia. People with other autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus can also produce one or more Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies which might put them at risk of developing excessive blood clots in blood vessels.

What Is The Beta 2 Glycoprotein Antibodies Test Used For?

The beta 2 glycoprotein antibodies test is often performed with other related tests to help diagnose the following:

  • APS or antiphospholipid syndrome
  • The root cause of unexplained blood clots
  • Cause of recurrent miscarriages in pregnant women, especially during the second and third trimester
  • To determine if you have developed the autoantibodies due to any autoimmune disorder like lupus

During the test, healthcare professionals try to detect Beta 2 glycoprotein IgM antibodies. If the initial antiphospholipid antibody test results for the IgM and IgG classes are negative, they may still strongly suggest antiphospholipid syndrome. In such cases, the IgA class of such autoantibodies is tested alongside other less common anti-phosphatidylserine and anti-prothrombin antibodies. However, despite all the accessible information, the testing values for the IgA class of antiphospholipid antibodies remain disputed among many.

Why And When Do You Need A Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgM) Test?

The Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 test and other antiphospholipid antibody testing are requested by a doctor when a person is demonstrating symptoms related to a blood clot in an artery or a vein. Pain, shortness of breath, swelling of the extremities like hands and feet, and unexplained headaches are some common reasons for conducting this particular test. This test is also ordered when a woman has had recurrent miscarriages without any significant cause. 

Your doctor will perform this test initially with cardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant test for further diagnosis. When one of the antibody tests turns out positive, you will undergo the test again 12 weeks later to determine if the antibody is persistent or temporary.

A doctor, physician, or health care provider can ask you to undergo this test if you show symptoms of excessive blood clot formation in the body. Some of the evident signs and symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
  • Swelling and pain that intensifies over time
  • Constant headaches

In some cases, a gynecologist or doctor can also issue this test to women with a history of recurrent miscarriages or when they exhibit symptoms of the antiphospholipid syndrome such as:

  • Preeclampsia
  • Chest pain
  • Stroke
  • Seizures
  • Loss of memory
  • Persistent headaches

What Kind Of Sample Is Required For The Test?

You will have to furnish your blood or serum sample for the Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgM) test. The blood or serum is generally collected via the vein-puncture collection of blood from the vein, more often from the arm. A doctor or lab technician will collect the recommended amount of blood in a small test tube or vial during the test. Once they have sufficient blood for the test, they will send it to the designated laboratory for further testing.

Do You Need To Prepare For The Test?

Since it is a standard blood test procedure, you don't need to do any special preparations beforehand. However, it is always important to let your doctor know about any medications and supplements before going for the test. Doing so ensures that your test results are accurate and in line with any complications involved.

Are There Any Risks To This Test?

The standard blood test procedures carry little to no risks. You might experience slight pain and bruising at the injection site when the needle goes in and out of the vein. People might experience dizziness, fatigue, lightheadedness, and hematoma (accumulation of blood under the skin) in rare cases.

What Do The Beta 2 Glycoprotein Test Results Mean?

It is important to note here that a doctor or health care practitioner only considers the test results of Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 along with other important factors such as your physical examination, medical history, and severity of signs and symptoms.

A positive Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM) test indicates that you have developed APS or antiphospholipid syndrome as it is more frequently seen with this medical condition. If your test results are positive, your doctor will repeat the test after 12 weeks or so to determine whether your condition is temporary or consistent. At present, many doctors diagnose antiphospholipid syndrome using your clinical findings as well as the persistent presence of one or more antiphospholipid antibodies and antigens.

If your test results are negative for Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM) but positive for other antiphospholipid antibodies with clear signs and symptoms, you likely have APS or any other autoimmune disorder. Moderately positive and moderately negative results mean that the antibodies and antigens are due to a condition other than antiphospholipid syndrome. 

If the repeat test is also negative, it shows that the antibodies and antigen were only temporary! This condition is mostly found in people with acute infections like cancers and HIV/AIDS.

People with autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus with the positive test for Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM) are at an increased risk of developing excessive blood clots in vessels. They may also have some coexisting autoimmune diseases, such as SLE and APS.

Related Tests: Cardiolipin igg Antibody, Lupus Anticoagulant Test, Antiphospholipid Antibodies Test, Anti-Phosphatidylserine Antibodies Test, Anti-Prothrombin Antibodies Test

Our clinical experts continually monitor the health and medical content posted on CURA4U, and we update our blogs and articles when new information becomes available. Last reviewed by Dr.Saad Zia on June 03, 2023.


Infant stroke and beta-2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies: six cases

IgA antiphospholipid antibodies and anti-domain 1 of beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies are associated with livedo reticularis and heart valve disease in antiphospholipid syndrome (

Distance: 25 KM
Actual Price:
Order Now