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The test is ordered by the doctor when he or she wants to monitor how the treatment for thyroid cancer is progressing, to detect any recurrence in cancer, and in some cases, to identify the cause of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
The test is often ordered by the doctor before and after the patient has been treated for thyroid cancer. It is also ordered by the doctor before and after radioactive iodine therapy. It may also be ordered at regular intervals to monitor any indication of cancer recurrence. Furthermore, the doctor may order it alongside other thyroid tests to check for specific thyroid disorders.
This is a blood test. The physician draws a blood sample from a vein in the arm via a syringe and sends it to the lab for testing.
There is usually no special preparation needed for the test. However, depending on which method the lab uses to measure thyroglobulin, you may be told to avoid taking dietary supplements like vitamins and others rich in biotin or vitamin B7 at least 12 hours before the test. This is to ensure that test results aren’t adulterated and are as accurate as they can possibly be. The patient should follow all the set guidelines provided by the doctor, which are based on information provided by the lab. You must also follow any other instructions given.
Thyroglobulin is a protein that is made only in the thyroid gland. This test is used to measure the amount of thyroglobulin present in the blood. The thyroid gland makes the hormones thyroxine, also known as T4, and triiodothyronine, also known as T3. These hormones are crucial in regulating the rate at which the body uses energy. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped organ that is located at the base of the throat. It lies flat against the windpipe. The main body is made up of very small, ball-shaped structures called follicles. The follicles are responsible for producing and storing thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin is the main source of the hormones T4 and T3.The pituitary hormone TSH,nalso known as thyroid-stimulating hormone, is responsible for stimulating the production of T3 and T4, as well as their release in the bloodstream. Thyroglobulin is present in all healthy individuals, and generally, the level of thyroglobulin is low in the blood. Its levels increase in both benign (Graves’ disease, subacute thyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis) and thyroid cancer. Thereby, thyroglobulin operates as a non-specific indicator of thyroid dysfunction in addition to being a tumor marker that can be used to assess patients who have thyroid papillary and follicular cancer after they have been diagnosed.
The test is used mainly as a tumor marker in order to assess the effectiveness of treatment for thyroid cancer. In addition, it is useful in monitoring the recurrence of cancer. While not all types of thyroid cancers produce thyroglobulin, the most common types, namely, the well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, do – they have increased levels of thyroglobulin in the blood. Thyroglobulin testing is used before thyroid cancer treatment alongside other TSH tests to see whether the cancer is producing thyroglobulin. If it is then, a test is ordered after treatment to check for recurrence. Several tests may be ordered over a period of time to evaluate the change in levels. The pattern of results is more useful in providing information in comparison to a single value. The tests are also ordered to help determine the cause of hyperthyroidism. It is also useful in monitoring how effective the treatment is for Graves’ disease. Sometimes the test may also be used to differentiate between subacute thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis factitia and to identify the cause of congenital hypothyroidism in newborn babies.
It is ordered by the doctor in a number of situations. It may be ordered before surgery to remove the thyroid gland due to cancer. It may also be ordered afterward to check if any cancerous or normal thyroid tissue has been left behind. The doctor may also order it routinely after surgery to make sure that the tumor hasn’t come back. The test is sometimes ordered when the patient has symptoms of an overactive thyroid gland or an enlarged thyroid gland or when the doctor suspects that the patient has a thyroid disorder. Sometimes, the test is ordered at intervals when the patient is being treated with antithyroid medications, and they need to be monitored.
If the patient has thyroid cancer and the levels are high, the result is used as a tumor marker. When cancer is being monitored for recurrence, a serial sample is required in order to make sure that the evaluation is holistic. Thyroglobulin levels should be undetectable or low after the thyroid is removed, after radioactive iodine treatments if you are on daily thyroid hormone medication to prevent TSH levels from rising. If thyroglobulin is still detectable in the blood, the doctor must follow up with an ultrasound or a radioactive iodine scan to identify any remaining normal thyroid tissue or cancer. After this, the levels must be checked again and monitored for metastasis and recurrence of cancer Lower levels of thyroglobulin in response to treatment for Graves disease indicate a positive response to treatment.
Related Tests

Thyroid Peroxidase TPO Antibody, Tumor Markers, Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3 (Free and Total), T4, Free, Thyroid Panel, Calcitonin

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