This test is used to diagnose autoimmune thyroid disease and delineate it from other kinds of thyroid disorders. In order to establish a concrete diagnosis or monitor an autoimmune disorder, single or multiple tests may be performed depending on the situation at hand. For example, the thyroid peroxidase antibody is the most commonly used tests for autoimmune thyroid disease. This can be detected for Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis. On the other hand, TGAb is an antibody that targets
which is the storage form of thyroid hormones. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies include two types of autoantibodies that attach to proteins found in the thyroid, which are normally bound by TSH. The thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin binds to receptors, increasing the production of thyroid hormones - a condition called hyperthyroidism, and the thyroid binding inhibitory immunoglobulin hormone prevents the TSH from binding to receptors, disrupting the production of thyroid hormones and decreasing it - this condition is called hyperthyroidism. While this hormone is not routinely checked, TSI is used to diagnose Graves disease.
Tests are also useful in investigating enlarged goitre and other sighs related to low or high thyroid hormone levels. This test acts as a follow up to total or free T3, free T4 and other TSH, which indicates thyroid dysfunction. The antibody tests are also used to gauge if someone with an autoimmune condition is at risk of developing thyroid dysfunction – this can occur with conditions like pernicious anaemia. Thyroglobulin tests are used to monitor treatment for thyroid cancer.