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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


One of the most common mental conditions among kids is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD often struggle to pay attention, manage impulsive actions (doing without considering the consequences), or be highly active. ADHD symptoms usually appear at a young age and grow more apparent when a child's surroundings alter, such as when children begin school. It is more common in boys than in girls. The majority of cases are diagnosed between the ages of 3 and 7, but they can also be detected in late childhood. Although ADHD cannot be cured, early detection can help reduce symptoms.


Although the specific cause of ADHD is uncertain, it has been found that the disorder mostly runs in families. Being delivered prematurely (before the 37th week of pregnancy), having low birth weight children, smoking or drinking and drug addiction during pregnancy, brain damage, and exposure to environmental dangers (e.g., lead) throughout pregnancy are all factors that might contribute to ADHD. ADHD can affect people of any intelligence level, although it is more common in people who have learning problems. There is no research suggesting that ADHD is due to excessive screen time, bad parenting, or excessive sugar consumption.


ADHD can be a long-term condition, though some symptoms lessen with age. A meta-analysis of 175 publications on the incidence of ADHD in children aged 18 and younger produced a global pooled estimate of 7.2 percent. Premature babies and those with low birth weight had a worse chance of thriving decades ago. These elements raise the chances of being labeled with ADHD. The study also implies that when there are fewer stigmas regarding mental health services in minority populations, more people will be diagnosed with ADHD.

Risk Factors

The following risk factors may increase the chances of ADHD;

·         Family history

·         Exposure to toxins in the environment, for example, lead found in old paints.

·         Smoking or drinking and drug addiction during pregnancy by the mother.

·         Premature birth

Signs And Symptoms

There are two categories of behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD:  

·         Inattentiveness

·         Impulsivity

Inattentiveness manifests itself in the following ways:

·         Inability to focus on one task.

·         Improper homework

·         Losing stuff or looking forgetful

·         Being unable to stick to challenging or time-consuming activities

·         Unable to understand or follow directions

·         Having trouble organizing stuff

Impulsivity manifests itself in the following ways:

·         Inability to stay quiet, especially in peaceful or quiet environments

·         Moving constantly

·         Failure to focus on tasks

·         Extreme physical activity

·         Chatting excessively

·         Unable to wait a long time

·         Behaving without consideration

·         Disrupting discussions

·          A lack of hazard awareness

·         Restlessness


Determining whether or not a kid has ADHD is a multi-step procedure. A medical evaluation, including hearing and eye testing, is one stage in ruling out other diseases with symptoms similar to ADHD.

A list for grading ADHD symptoms and obtaining a history of the kid from parents, educators, and, in certain cases, the child himself is used to diagnose ADHD.

There is no single blood test or scan to detect that you or your kid has ADHD, but your physician can provide an accurate diagnosis following a thorough evaluation. The assessment may include:

·         A medical check to rule out any potential reasons for the problems

·         An interview series with you or the child by the expert.

·         Other key persons, such as spouses, family members, and teachers, may be interviewed or provide reports if needed.

Differential Diagnosis

One or more conditions may overlap with ADHD, such as:

·         Oppositional defiant

·         Anxiety disorders

·         Sleep diseases

·         Mood disorders

·         Drug Abuse

·         Tourette Syndrome

·         Learning disabilities


In most circumstances, a combination of behavior therapy and medication is by far the most effective treatment for ADHD. Behavior therapy, particularly parental training, is suggested as the first line of therapy for preschool children (aged 4-5) with ADHD before medication is considered. Close observation, follow-up, and making modifications as necessary are all part of effective treatment regimens.

Behavioural Therapy:

The goal of behavioral treatment is to deal with the signs and symptoms of ADHD. Treatment for children generally includes training parents and educators on how to give responses to desired behaviors and negative consequences for undesirable ones. Behavioral therapy can help youngsters learn to manage their behavior and make healthy choices, even though it involves precise coordination.

Parents must participate in all sorts of therapy for kids and adolescents with ADHD. For controlling ADHD symptoms and behavior, psychotherapy that comprises simply individual meetings with the child without parents is ineffective.


ADHD medications help many people control their hyperactivity and increase their ability to pay attention, work and understand. Several different drugs or doses may need to be explored before a person finds the one that usually works for them. Anyone on medicine must be regularly supervised by their medical provider.


A "stimulant" is the most frequent type of medicine used to manage ADHD. Although treating ADHD with a stimulant may seem strange, the medicine works by raising the brain proteins known as dopamine and norepinephrine, which are important for thinking and attention.


Non-stimulants are a kind of ADHD medicine. These drugs take more time to act than stimulants, but they can help people with ADHD enhance their concentration, attentiveness, and impulsivity.

Lifestyle Modifications

·         One of the natural cures for ADHD is to get enough sleep. From waking up to heading to bed, maintain the same daily routine.

·         Everything should have a place, such as garments, bags, and accessories, and everything should be kept in its location.

·         For classroom materials and supplies, use organizers. Make sure your kid understands the necessity of writing down tasks.

·         Children with ADHD require instructions that are clear and easy to follow.

·         Include homework, outdoor activities, and indoor activities in your schedule. The timetable should be posted on the fridge door or on a whiteboard.

·         Look for and reward desirable behaviors.

·         Support groups may link parents and families with those dealing with similar issues. Regular meetings are common for groups to share problems and accomplishments, share knowledge about preferred specialists, and speak with professionals.

Our clinical experts continually monitor the health and medical content posted on CURA4U, and we update our blogs and articles when new information becomes available. Last reviewed by Dr.Saad Zia on May 12, 2023.