Chloride tests are not ordered independently, not interpreted in isolation. Other blood tests and electrolyte tests are ordered and interpreted alongside. High or low chloride concentrations can result from a variety of conditions. Elevated levels of blood chloride, is known as hyperchloremia. An increased level of blood chloride (called hyperchloremia) usually suggests dehydration. However, chloride levels also rise due to conditions that cause increased blood sodium for example, Cushing syndrome or kidney disease. High blood chloride is also caused by loss of too much base from the body which produces metabolic acidosis and in case of hyperventilation as it leads to respiratory alkalosis. A drop in levels of blood chloride, which is also known as hypochloremia, can occur because of any condition that leads to a decline in the
blood sodium levels
It can occur along with congestive heart failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, aldosterone deficiency, prolonged vomiting or gastric suction, Addison disease, emphysema or other chronic lung diseases which cause respiratory acidosis, and with loss of acid from the body (also known as metabolic alkalosis).
A rise in urine chloride concentration in the urine suggests dehydration, starvation, Addison disease, or high consumption of salt. A reduction in urine chloride concentration is often found in patients with Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, congestive heart failure, malabsorption syndrome, and diarrhea.