Congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply called heart failure, develops due to cardiac malfunctioning that causes a buildup of fluid inside the tissues and extracellular spaces. The heart fails to pump blood at a rate that is compatible with the requirements of metabolizing tissues. To overcome the gap, the filling pressure, also called diastolic filling pressure, is increased. Heart failure can also exist with normal cardiac function in high-demand conditions. The compensatory mechanisms in such cases that increase the blood flow filling pressures or blood pressure, etc., further deteriorate the cardiac function.
Following are the causes of congestive heart failure:
There are various categorizations of heart failure depending upon the clinical symptoms. According to one classification, CHF can be classified into:
According to another classification, CHF can be divided into:
Heart failure is a global problem. It is becoming an increasing problem in developed and developing countries where lifestyles are becoming more affluent. People take more processed food and resort to limited physical activity for routine functioning. In the United States, heart failure affects 6.5 million people yearly, aged 20 years or older. It is one of the major causes of hospitalizations in the elderly population. Every year, one in eight deaths in the United States is due to heart failure. Risk factors for congestive heart failure include:
Signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure are:
Diagnosis of congestive heart failure is established by the following tests:
Differential diagnoses of congestive heart failure include:
Treatment of congestive heart failure focuses on:
Medications used to manage congestive heart failure include:
The prognosis of patients with severe disease (class IV) is generally poor. The mortality rate in hospitalized patients with heart failure is more than 10%. As the complication develop, the mortality rate increases. It increases to 40% with myocardial infarction and around 80% with cardiogenic shock. Similarly, comorbid conditions such as hypertension and diabetes also increase the mortality rate significantly and are associated with poor outcomes.
Our clinical experts continually monitor the health and medical content posted on CURA4U, and we update our blogs and articles when new information becomes available. Last reviewed by Dr.Saad Zia on May 15, 2023.
Congestive Heart Failure - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf (nih.gov)\
Congestive Heart Failure | Heart Failure | CHF | MedlinePlus